Among the many fields of study, medical science is one that continues to grow and change as the world becomes more and more complex. Medical science is the study of the human body and its health. The fields of medical science include Anesthesiology, Pathology, Surgery, Biomedical engineering and Nutrition science. These fields are the foundation for most of the health care services we use today.
Often, doctors depend on pathologists to provide advice and diagnosis. In addition, pathologists provide consultative services to help patients understand the results of pathology tests.
Pathology is a field of medical science that involves studying and analyzing bodily tissues, fluids and organs. Pathologists are medical doctors with specialist laboratory training. In addition, pathologists must undergo a residency in pathology and pass the board certification exam before practicing. Pathologists may specialize in one of the following areas: chemical pathology, anatomic pathology, molecular genetic pathology, immunology or pathologic surgery.
Pathology is a vital component in all facets of medicine. From preconception to post mortem, pathology plays an important role in health care.
Pathologists perform laboratory tests to examine body tissues and fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissue. These tests are used to detect abnormalities, monitor the progress of disease, and predict treatment. Pathology tests are ordered at one in five patient visits. Depending on the patient’s needs, pathology testing may be performed to monitor medications, detect diseases such as cancer, or monitor heart problems.
Pathology services include laboratory testing, radiographic studies, and patient examination. Molecular Pathology testing is the cornerstone of Precision Medicine. This type of testing takes into account individual differences in lifestyle, genes, and environmental factors.
Pathologists also participate in research. Faculty research programs include cell-cycle regulation, cancer cell biology, hypersensitivity, chemical carcinogenesis, and tissue engineering. Faculty research is supported by industrial and federal grants.
Surgical procedures are performed to treat acute injuries, chronic illnesses, and diseases. A surgical procedure usually involves anesthesia and suturing. The procedures are classified according to the type of body system involved and the invasiveness of the procedure. Some of the common procedures include angioplasty, endoscopy, and gastrointestinal surgery.
In the last few decades, surgery has experienced a major shift in its workforce. In 2000, women made up 44.3% of the workforce, while men made up 68.3%. In the future, the composition of the workforce will have a direct impact on surgical education and practice.
In the last 50 years, two major advances have changed the face of surgery: the introduction of anesthesia and antisepsis. These techniques allowed the surgical staff to work more efficiently and reduce the risk of wound infections after an operation.
Research is a core element of the Department of Surgery. The research program is supported by foundations, nongovernmental organizations, federal agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. Increasingly, research involves collaborations with other academic institutions.
The Department of Surgery offers state-of-the-art training for its residents. A five-year program is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. This training prepares residents for successful careers as general surgeons. Residents are also encouraged to participate in research and clinical research experience. Research provides residents with opportunities to develop skills in administration and education.
Almost every medical school offers training in anesthesiology, which is a medical discipline that involves preventing pain during surgical procedures. Anesthesiologists use various techniques to ensure adequate pain relief in the immediate postoperative period. Anesthesiologists also provide medical assessment and instruction to patients and families on post-procedure care.
The field of anesthesiology has made significant strides in surgery and medicine. Today, anesthesiologists use the latest technologies to better monitor patients’ physiological functions and control the level of anesthetics they receive during surgery.
Anesthesiologists also apply their knowledge of medical science in the most dangerous conditions. They provide care to patients in the operating room, intensive care units, and emergency situations. In addition, they provide pain relief to mothers during childbirth.
Anesthesiologists also work to improve the lives of patients through research. Their studies involve both clinical and basic science research. Their research includes such topics as blood transfusions, difficult airway management, and fluid therapy. They also conduct research into complications, and the long-term effects of anesthetics.
As the field has evolved, anesthesiologists are now working to expand their reach. A new field called “systems anesthesiology” combines information from a variety of disciplines to devise personalized therapies. It is an important area of research, as it involves integrating information from a variety of sources to improve patient care.
Anesthesiologists also have the unique ability to prescribe drug therapies to alleviate pain. This can help reduce the rate of heart attacks and postoperative complications.
Getting a Bachelor of Science in Nutrition Science is a degree that provides a strong science education and prepares students for graduate studies in the health professions. It is a multidisciplinary field that integrates the study of the human body with the science of nutrition, nutrition assessment and nutrition therapy. It also prepares students for work in research laboratories, teaching and pharmaceutical companies.
Nutrition science prepares students to work as health professionals who improve the health of the public. Nutrition science studies the relationship between diet and health. It also addresses the role of healthy eating in disease prevention.
Nutrition science incorporates knowledge of human biology, biochemistry, physical sciences, social sciences and education. It is a dynamic science. Nutrition studies the role of dietary intake and nutrition therapy in preventing deficiency diseases. Students also learn about the relationship of nutrition to genetics and lifestyle.
Nutrition science has a strong science base and is taught at universities across the world. It has been a subject of study since the nineteenth century. Today, students are trained to work as health professionals who can implement medical nutrition therapy, develop safe food production practices and provide research-based advice to consumers.
Nutrition science prepares students for careers in the food industry, non-profit organizations, pharmaceutical companies and medical schools. Depending on the degree, graduates may work in public health, community nutrition or research labs.
Using engineering principles, biomedical engineers design devices, software and monitoring systems. Their applications range from blood oxygenators and cardiac pacemakers to joint replacement implants.
Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary field that blends biology, engineering, and medicine. Biological systems have unique responses to environmental change, and biomedical engineers must understand how these systems work. Their focus is on designing efficient solutions and improving the quality of patient care.
Biomedical engineers work with physicians, scientists, nurses, and technicians to design new medical devices and procedures. Some of the applications include therapeutic medical devices, regenerative tissue growth, diagnostic medical devices, and novel drug delivery systems.
Biomedical engineering is considered one of the fastest-growing fields in the United States. It is predicted to grow by 5 percent over the next four years. In 2012, there were 19,400 biomedical engineers working in the United States. Biomedical engineers are also employed by pharmaceutical manufacturers, hospitals, clinics, and laboratories. They can also apply for a job with medical equipment manufacturers, as well as medical equipment development companies.
Biomedical engineers must have a strong math and science background, and above average proficiency in math and science. Biomedical engineers must also have a strong interest in medicine and science. They may be asked to design devices, such as blood oxygenators and cardiac pacemakers, as well as to carry out research.
Biomedical engineers can work with other members of the healthcare team, including physicians, nurses, technicians, and laboratory technicians. Biomedical engineers must be creative and problem-solvers. They may be asked to design and test new medical devices, or they may need to stay with patients after the application of a product.
Conflicts between values in medical science and non-medical community
Almost every health care oriented professional has an ethical code to guide their conduct. Aside from their own morals, most health care professionals are also stewards of the well-being of their patients. They are often the first line of defense against disease and health related misfortune. These days, health care is no longer just about medicine. Many health care professionals have moved on to more holistic practices. In the early 21st century, holistic patient care became the norm in many affluent societies.
For instance, a young adult with a ruptured appendix may be reluctant to seek treatment in the hospital. Aside from a sense of obligation to her parents, the young lady may also be worried about the long term consequences of her surgery. The medical community is well armed with information on how to manage these types of risks. In the name of patient safety, medical professionals are willing to make the occasional exception. In the long run, this can save a life or two.
Health care professionals and their patients have a long history of conflicting values. For instance, a patient who believes in the gods might object to a life-saving blood transfusion. The best way to resolve this conundrum is to make the patient aware of the fact that he or she is a human being. This will not only improve patient care, but increase empathy and satisfaction.